There are 4 kinds of stone crusher types. Please check the below:
The following table describes typical uses of commonly used crushers:
|Type||Hardness||Abrasion limit||Moisture content||Reduction ratio||Main use|
|Jaw crushers||Soft to very hard||No limit||Dry to slightly wet, not sticky||3/1 to 5/1||Heavy mining, Quarried materials, sand & gravel, recycling|
|Gyratory crushers||Soft to very hard||Abrasive||Dry to slightly wet, not sticky||4/1 to 7/1||Heavy mining, Quarried materials|
|Cone crushers||Medium hard to very hard||Abrasive||Dry or wet, not sticky||3/1 to 5/1||Quarried materials, Sand & gravel|
|Compound crusher||Medium hard to very hard||Abrasive||Dry or wet, not sticky||3/1 to 5/1||Mine, Building Materials|
|Horizontal shaft impactors||Soft to medium hard||Slightly abrasive||Dry or wet, not sticky||10/1 to 25/1||Quarried materials, sand & gravel, recycling|
|Vertical shaft impactors (shoe and anvil)||Medium hard to very hard||Slightly abrasive||Dry or wet, not sticky||6/1 to 8/1||Sand & gravel, recycling|
|Vertical shaft impactors (autogenous)||Soft to very hard||No limit||Dry or wet, not sticky||2/1 to 5/1||Quarried materials, sand & gravel|
|Mineral sizers||Hard to soft||Abrasive||Dry or wet and sticky||2/1 to 5/1||Heavy mining|
|Crusher buckets||Soft to very hard||No limit||Dry or wet and sticky||3/1 to 5/1||Heavy mining, Quarried materials, sand & gravel, recycling|
A jaw crusher uses compressive force for breaking of particle. This mechanical pressure is achieved by the two jaws of the crusher of which one is fixed while the other reciprocates. A jaw or toggle crusher consists of a set of vertical jaws, one jaw is kept stationary and is called a fixed jaw while the other jaw called a swing jaw, moves back and forth relative to it, by a cam or pitman mechanism, acting like a class II lever or a nutcracker. The volume or cavity between the two jaws is called the crushing chamber. The movement of the swing jaw can be quite small, since complete crushing is not performed in one stroke. The inertia required to crush the material is provided by a flywheel that moves a shaft creating an eccentric motion that causes the closing of the gap.
Jaw crushers are heavy duty machines and hence need to be robustly constructed. The outer frame is generally made of cast iron or steel. The jaws themselves are usually constructed from cast steel. They are fitted with replaceable liners which are made of manganese steel, or Ni-hard (a Ni-Cr alloyed cast iron). Jaw crushers are usually constructed in sections to ease the process transportation if they are to be taken underground for carrying out the operations.
Jaw crushers are classified on the basis of the position of the pivoting of the swing jaw
- Blake crusher-the swing jaw is fixed at the upper position
- Dodge crusher-the swing jaw is fixed at the lower position
- Universal crusher-the swing jaw is fixed at an intermediate position
The Blake crusher was patented by Eli Whitney Blake in 1858. The Blake type jaw crusher has a fixed feed area and a variable discharge area. Blake crushers are of two types- single toggle and double toggle jaw crushers.
In the single toggle jaw crushers, the swing jaw is suspended on the eccentric shaft which leads to a much more compact design than that of the double toggle jaw crusher. The swing jaw, suspended on the eccentric, undergoes two types of motion- swing motion towards the fixed jaw due to the action of toggle plate and vertical movement due the rotation of the eccentric. These two motions, when combined, lead to an elliptical jaw motion. This motion is useful as it assists in pushing the particles through the crushing chamber. This phenomenon leads to higher capacity of the single toggle jaw crushers but it also results in higher wear of the crushing jaws. These type of jaw crushers are preferred for the crushing of softer particles.
In the double toggle jaw crushers, the oscillating motion of the swing jaw is caused by the vertical motion of the pitman. The pitman moves up and down. The swing jaw closes, i.e., it moves towards the fixed jaw when the pitman moves upward and opens during the downward motion of the pitman. This type is commonly used in mines due to its ability to crush tough and abrasive materials.
In the Dodge type jaw crushers, the jaws are farther apart at the top than at the bottom, forming a tapered chute so that the material is crushed progressively smaller and smaller as it travels downward until it is small enough to escape from the bottom opening. The Dodge jaw crusher has a variable feed area and a fixed discharge area which leads to choking of the crusher and hence is used only for laboratory purposes and not for heavy duty operations.
A gyratory crusher is similar in basic concept to a jaw crusher, consisting of a concave surface and a conical head; both surfaces are typically lined with manganese steel surfaces. The inner cone has a slight circular movement, but does not rotate; the movement is generated by an eccentric arrangement. As with the jaw crusher, material travels downward between the two surfaces being progressively crushed until it is small enough to fall out through the gap between the two surfaces.
A gyratory crusher is one of the main types of primary crushers in a mine or ore processing plant. Gyratory crushers are designated in size either by the gape and mantle diameter or by the size of the receiving opening. Gyratory crushers can be used for primary or secondary crushing. The crushing action is caused by the closing of the gap between the mantle line (movable) mounted on the central vertical spindle and the concave liners (fixed) mounted on the main frame of the crusher. The gap is opened and closed by an eccentric on the bottom of the spindle that causes the central vertical spindle to gyrate. The vertical spindle is free to rotate around its own axis. The crusher illustrated is a short-shaft suspended spindle type, meaning that the main shaft is suspended at the top and that the eccentric is mounted above the gear. The short-shaft design has superseded the long-shaft design in which the eccentric is mounted below the gear.
With the rapid development of mining technology, the cone crusher can be divided into four types: compound cone crusher, spring cone crusher, hydraulic cone crusher and gyratory crusher. According to different models, the cone crusher is divided into VSC series cone crusher (compound cone crusher), Symons cone crusher, PY cone crusher, single cylinder hydraulic cone crusher, multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher, gyratory crusher, etc.
A cone crusher is similar in operation to a gyratory crusher, with less steepness in the crushing chamber and more of a parallel zone between crushing zones. A cone crusher breaks rock by squeezing the rock between an eccentrically gyrating spindle, which is covered by a wear-resistant mantle, and the enclosing concave hopper, covered by a manganese concave or a bowl liner. As rock enters the top of the cone crusher, it becomes wedged and squeezed between the mantle and the bowl liner or concave. Large pieces of ore are broken once, and then fall to a lower position (because they are now smaller) where they are broken again. This process continues until the pieces are small enough to fall through the narrow opening at the bottom of the crusher.
A cone crusher is suitable for crushing a variety of mid-hard and above mid-hard ores and rocks. It has the advantage of reliable construction, high productivity, easy adjustment and lower operational costs. The spring release system of a cone crusher acts an overload protection that allows tramp to pass through the crushing chamber without damage to the crusher.
Compound cone crusher
Compound cone crusher (VSC series cone crusher) can crush materials of over medium hardness. It is mainly used in mining, chemical industry, road and bridge construction, building, etc. As for VSC series cone crusher, there are four crushing cavities (coarse, medium, fine and superfine) to choose. Compared with the same type, VSC series cone crusher, whose combination of crushing frequency and eccentricity is the best, can make materials have higher comminution degree and higher yield. In addition, VSC series cone crusher’s enhanced laminating crushing effect on material particles makes the cubic shape of crushed materials better, which increases the selling point.
Symons cone crusher
Symons cone crusher (spring cone crusher) can crush materials of above medium hardness. And it is widely used in metallurgy, building, hydropower, transportation, chemical industry, etc. When used with jaw crusher, it can be used as secondary, tertiary or quaternary crushing. Generally speaking, the standard type of Symons cone crusher is applied to medium crushing. The medium type is applied to fine crushing. The short head type is applied to coarse fine crushing. As casting steel technique is adopted, the machine has good rigidity and large high strength.
Single cylinder hydraulic cone crusher
Single cylinder hydraulic cone crusher is mainly composed of main frame, transmission device, eccentric shaft, bowl-shaped bearing, crushing cone, mantle, bowl liner, adjusting device, adjusting sleeve, hydraulic control system, hydraulic safety system, dust-proof ring, feed plate, etc.
Multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher
Multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher is mainly composed of main frame, eccentric shaft, crushing cone, mantle, bowl liner, adjusting device, dust ring, transmission device, bowl-shaped bearing, adjusting sleeve, hydraulic control system, hydraulic safety system, etc. The electric motor of the cone crusher drives the eccentric shaft to make periodic swing movement under the shaft axis, and consequently surface of mantle approaches and leaves the surface of bowl liner now and then, so that the material is crushed due to squeezing and grinding inside the crushing chamber. The safety cylinder of the machine can ensure safety as well as lift supporting sleeve and static cone by a hydraulic system and automatically remove the blocks in the crushing chamber when the machine is suddenly stuffy. Thus the maintenance rate is greatly reduced and production efficiency is greatly improved as it can remove blocks without disassembling the machine.
Impact crushers involve the use of impact rather than pressure to crush material. The material is contained within a cage, with openings on the bottom, end, or side of the desired size to allow pulverized material to escape. There are two types of impact crushers: horizontal shaft impactor and vertical shaft impactor.
Horizontal shaft impactor (HSI) / Hammermill
The HSI crushers break rock by impacting the rock with hammers that are fixed upon the outer edge of a spinning rotor. HSI machines are sold in stationary, trailer mounted and crawler mounted configurations. HSI’s are used in recycling, hard rock and soft materials. In earlier years the practical use of HSI crushers is limited to soft materials and non abrasive materials, such as limestone, phosphate, gypsum, weathered shales, however improvements in metallurgy have changed the application of these machines.
Vertical shaft impactor (VSI)
VSI crushers use a different approach involving a high speed rotor with wear resistant tips and a crushing chamber designed to ‘throw’ the rock against. The VSI crushers utilize velocity rather than surface force as the predominant force to break rock. In its natural state, rock has a jagged and uneven surface. Applying surface force (pressure) results in unpredictable and typically non-cubical resulting particles. Utilizing velocity rather than surface force allows the breaking force to be applied evenly both across the surface of the rock as well as through the mass of the rock. Rock, regardless of size, has natural fissures (faults) throughout its structure. As rock is ‘thrown’ by a VSI Rotor against a solid anvil, it fractures and breaks along these fissures. Final particle size can be controlled by 1) the velocity at which the rock is thrown against the anvil and 2) the distance between the end of the rotor and the impact point on the anvil. The product resulting from VSI Crushing is generally of a consistent cubical shape such as that required by modern SUPERPAVE highway asphalt applications. Using this method also allows materials with much higher abrasiveness to be crushed than is capable with an HSI and most other crushing methods.
VSI crushers generally utilize a high speed spinning rotor at the center of the crushing chamber and an outer impact surface of either abrasive resistant metal anvils or crushed rock. Utilizing cast metal surfaces ‘anvils’ is traditionally referred to as a “Shoe and Anvil VSI”. Utilizing crushed rock on the outer walls of the crusher for new rock to be crushed against is traditionally referred to as “rock on rock VSI”. VSI crushers can be used in static plant set-up or in mobile tracked equipment.