Cone Crusher Mantle And Concave Ring Material Selection

The standard cone crusher mantle and concave ring material is manganese, but depending on the feed characteristics a variety of other alloys can be chosen to achieve the best cost per produced ton. The upper concave tiers must withstand high impact forces. The lower tiers require maximum abrasion resistance. There are some kinds of material selection:

1. High Manganese Steel

Manganese is essential to iron and steel production by virtue of its sulfur-fixing, deoxidizing, and alloying properties, as first recognized by the British metallurgist Robert Forester Mushet (1811–1891) who, in 1856, introduced the element, in the form of Spiegeleisen, into steel for the specific purpose of removing excess dissolved oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus in order to improve its malleability. Steelmaking, including its ironmaking component, has accounted for most manganese demand, presently in the range of 85% to 90% of the total demand.  Manganese is a key component of low-cost stainless steel. Often ferromanganese (usually about 80% manganese) is the intermediate in modern processes.

Small amounts of manganese improve the workability of steel at high temperatures by forming a high-melting sulfide and preventing the formation of a liquid iron sulfide at the grain boundaries. If the manganese content reaches 4%, the embrittlement of the steel becomes a dominant feature. The embrittlement decreases at higher manganese concentrations and reaches an acceptable level at 8%. Steel containing 8 to 15% of manganese has a high tensile strength of up to 863 MPa.Steel with 12% manganese was discovered in 1882 by Robert Hadfield and is still known as Hadfield steel (Mangalloy). It was used for British military steel helmets and later by the U.S. military.

The Type of High Manganese Steel For Concave and Mantle

  • Mn14Cr2
  • Mn18Cr2
  • Mn22Cr2

2.TIC Insert Manganese Steel

Titanium Carbide (TiC) cone crusher wear parts are designed to increase the wear life of wear parts in abrasive environments. Titanium carbide columns are cast within proprietary alloys for added strength and durability.

Under this material, Concave and mantle working life can be 2-3 times than normal high manganese steel parts. Especially, when crushing hard stone, its span life can be more time.

3.High Mn Steel Matrix Ceramic Composite

High Mn Steel matrix ceramic composite concave and mantle had tested in many customers who use cone crusher to crush hard stone, its span life also better than normal manganese steel.

 

In fact, there are many kinds of material for cone crusher concave and mantle, which material is the best? Its based on the cost performance and real quality inquiry.

 

4 Kinds Stone Crusher Types

There are 4 kinds of stone crusher types. Please check  the below:

The following table describes typical uses of commonly used crushers:

Type Hardness Abrasion limit Moisture content Reduction ratio Main use
Jaw crushers Soft to very hard No limit Dry to slightly wet, not sticky 3/1 to 5/1 Heavy mining, Quarried materials, sand & gravel, recycling
Gyratory crushers Soft to very hard Abrasive Dry to slightly wet, not sticky 4/1 to 7/1 Heavy mining, Quarried materials
Cone crushers Medium hard to very hard Abrasive Dry or wet, not sticky 3/1 to 5/1 Quarried materials, Sand & gravel
Compound crusher Medium hard to very hard Abrasive Dry or wet, not sticky 3/1 to 5/1 Mine, Building Materials
Horizontal shaft impactors Soft to medium hard Slightly abrasive Dry or wet, not sticky 10/1 to 25/1 Quarried materials, sand & gravel, recycling
Vertical shaft impactors (shoe and anvil) Medium hard to very hard Slightly abrasive Dry or wet, not sticky 6/1 to 8/1 Sand & gravel, recycling
Vertical shaft impactors (autogenous) Soft to very hard No limit Dry or wet, not sticky 2/1 to 5/1 Quarried materials, sand & gravel
Mineral sizers Hard to soft Abrasive Dry or wet and sticky 2/1 to 5/1 Heavy mining
Crusher buckets Soft to very hard No limit Dry or wet and sticky 3/1 to 5/1 Heavy mining, Quarried materials, sand & gravel, recycling

Jaw crusher

A jaw crusher uses compressive force for breaking of particle. This mechanical pressure is achieved by the two jaws of the crusher of which one is fixed while the other reciprocates. A jaw or toggle crusher consists of a set of vertical jaws, one jaw is kept stationary and is called a fixed jaw while the other jaw called a swing jaw, moves back and forth relative to it, by a cam or pitman mechanism, acting like a class II lever or a nutcracker. The volume or cavity between the two jaws is called the crushing chamber. The movement of the swing jaw can be quite small, since complete crushing is not performed in one stroke. The inertia required to crush the material is provided by a flywheel that moves a shaft creating an eccentric motion that causes the closing of the gap.

Jaw crushers are heavy duty machines and hence need to be robustly constructed. The outer frame is generally made of cast iron or steel. The jaws themselves are usually constructed from cast steel. They are fitted with replaceable liners which are made of manganese steel, or Ni-hard (a Ni-Cr alloyed cast iron). Jaw crushers are usually constructed in sections to ease the process transportation if they are to be taken underground for carrying out the operations.

Jaw crushers are classified on the basis of the position of the pivoting of the swing jaw

  1. Blake crusher-the swing jaw is fixed at the upper position
  2. Dodge crusher-the swing jaw is fixed at the lower position
  3. Universal crusher-the swing jaw is fixed at an intermediate position

The Blake crusher was patented by Eli Whitney Blake in 1858. The Blake type jaw crusher has a fixed feed area and a variable discharge area. Blake crushers are of two types- single toggle and double toggle jaw crushers.

In the single toggle jaw crushers, the swing jaw is suspended on the eccentric shaft which leads to a much more compact design than that of the double toggle jaw crusher. The swing jaw, suspended on the eccentric, undergoes two types of motion- swing motion towards the fixed jaw due to the action of toggle plate and vertical movement due the rotation of the eccentric. These two motions, when combined, lead to an elliptical jaw motion. This motion is useful as it assists in pushing the particles through the crushing chamber. This phenomenon leads to higher capacity of the single toggle jaw crushers but it also results in higher wear of the crushing jaws. These type of jaw crushers are preferred for the crushing of softer particles.

In the double toggle jaw crushers, the oscillating motion of the swing jaw is caused by the vertical motion of the pitman. The pitman moves up and down. The swing jaw closes, i.e., it moves towards the fixed jaw when the pitman moves upward and opens during the downward motion of the pitman. This type is commonly used in mines due to its ability to crush tough and abrasive materials.

In the Dodge type jaw crushers, the jaws are farther apart at the top than at the bottom, forming a tapered chute so that the material is crushed progressively smaller and smaller as it travels downward until it is small enough to escape from the bottom opening. The Dodge jaw crusher has a variable feed area and a fixed discharge area which leads to choking of the crusher and hence is used only for laboratory purposes and not for heavy duty operations.

Gyratory crusher

A gyratory crusher is similar in basic concept to a jaw crusher, consisting of a concave surface and a conical head; both surfaces are typically lined with manganese steel surfaces. The inner cone has a slight circular movement, but does not rotate; the movement is generated by an eccentric arrangement. As with the jaw crusher, material travels downward between the two surfaces being progressively crushed until it is small enough to fall out through the gap between the two surfaces.

A gyratory crusher is one of the main types of primary crushers in a mine or ore processing plant. Gyratory crushers are designated in size either by the gape and mantle diameter or by the size of the receiving opening. Gyratory crushers can be used for primary or secondary crushing. The crushing action is caused by the closing of the gap between the mantle line (movable) mounted on the central vertical spindle and the concave liners (fixed) mounted on the main frame of the crusher. The gap is opened and closed by an eccentric on the bottom of the spindle that causes the central vertical spindle to gyrate. The vertical spindle is free to rotate around its own axis. The crusher illustrated is a short-shaft suspended spindle type, meaning that the main shaft is suspended at the top and that the eccentric is mounted above the gear. The short-shaft design has superseded the long-shaft design in which the eccentric is mounted below the gear.

Cone crusher

With the rapid development of mining technology, the cone crusher can be divided into four types: compound cone crusher, spring cone crusher, hydraulic cone crusher and gyratory crusher. According to different models, the cone crusher is divided into VSC series cone crusher (compound cone crusher), Symons cone crusher, PY cone crusher, single cylinder hydraulic cone crusher, multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher, gyratory crusher, etc.

A cone crusher is similar in operation to a gyratory crusher, with less steepness in the crushing chamber and more of a parallel zone between crushing zones. A cone crusher breaks rock by squeezing the rock between an eccentrically gyrating spindle, which is covered by a wear-resistant mantle, and the enclosing concave hopper, covered by a manganese concave or a bowl liner. As rock enters the top of the cone crusher, it becomes wedged and squeezed between the mantle and the bowl liner or concave. Large pieces of ore are broken once, and then fall to a lower position (because they are now smaller) where they are broken again. This process continues until the pieces are small enough to fall through the narrow opening at the bottom of the crusher.

A cone crusher is suitable for crushing a variety of mid-hard and above mid-hard ores and rocks. It has the advantage of reliable construction, high productivity, easy adjustment and lower operational costs. The spring release system of a cone crusher acts an overload protection that allows tramp to pass through the crushing chamber without damage to the crusher.

Compound cone crusher

Compound cone crusher (VSC series cone crusher) can crush materials of over medium hardness. It is mainly used in mining, chemical industry, road and bridge construction, building, etc. As for VSC series cone crusher, there are four crushing cavities (coarse, medium, fine and superfine) to choose. Compared with the same type, VSC series cone crusher, whose combination of crushing frequency and eccentricity is the best, can make materials have higher comminution degree and higher yield. In addition, VSC series cone crusher’s enhanced laminating crushing effect on material particles makes the cubic shape of crushed materials better, which increases the selling point.

Symons cone crusher

Symons cone crusher (spring cone crusher) can crush materials of above medium hardness. And it is widely used in metallurgy, building, hydropower, transportation, chemical industry, etc. When used with jaw crusher, it can be used as secondary, tertiary or quaternary crushing. Generally speaking, the standard type of Symons cone crusher is applied to medium crushing. The medium type is applied to fine crushing. The short head type is applied to coarse fine crushing. As casting steel technique is adopted, the machine has good rigidity and large high strength.

Single cylinder hydraulic cone crusher

Single cylinder hydraulic cone crusher is mainly composed of main frame, transmission device, eccentric shaft, bowl-shaped bearing, crushing cone, mantle, bowl liner, adjusting device, adjusting sleeve, hydraulic control system, hydraulic safety system, dust-proof ring, feed plate, etc.

Multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher

Multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher is mainly composed of main frame, eccentric shaft, crushing cone, mantle, bowl liner, adjusting device, dust ring, transmission device, bowl-shaped bearing, adjusting sleeve, hydraulic control system, hydraulic safety system, etc. The electric motor of the cone crusher drives the eccentric shaft to make periodic swing movement under the shaft axis, and consequently surface of mantle approaches and leaves the surface of bowl liner now and then, so that the material is crushed due to squeezing and grinding inside the crushing chamber. The safety cylinder of the machine can ensure safety as well as lift supporting sleeve and static cone by a hydraulic system and automatically remove the blocks in the crushing chamber when the machine is suddenly stuffy. Thus the maintenance rate is greatly reduced and production efficiency is greatly improved as it can remove blocks without disassembling the machine.

Impact crusher

Impact crushers involve the use of impact rather than pressure to crush material. The material is contained within a cage, with openings on the bottom, end, or side of the desired size to allow pulverized material to escape. There are two types of impact crushers: horizontal shaft impactor and vertical shaft impactor.

Horizontal shaft impactor (HSI) / Hammermill

The HSI crushers break rock by impacting the rock with hammers that are fixed upon the outer edge of a spinning rotor. HSI machines are sold in stationary, trailer mounted and crawler mounted configurations. HSI’s are used in recycling, hard rock and soft materials. In earlier years the practical use of HSI crushers is limited to soft materials and non abrasive materials, such as limestone, phosphate, gypsum, weathered shales, however improvements in metallurgy have changed the application of these machines.

Vertical shaft impactor (VSI)

VSI crushers use a different approach involving a high speed rotor with wear resistant tips and a crushing chamber designed to ‘throw’ the rock against. The VSI crushers utilize velocity rather than surface force as the predominant force to break rock. In its natural state, rock has a jagged and uneven surface. Applying surface force (pressure) results in unpredictable and typically non-cubical resulting particles. Utilizing velocity rather than surface force allows the breaking force to be applied evenly both across the surface of the rock as well as through the mass of the rock. Rock, regardless of size, has natural fissures (faults) throughout its structure. As rock is ‘thrown’ by a VSI Rotor against a solid anvil, it fractures and breaks along these fissures. Final particle size can be controlled by 1) the velocity at which the rock is thrown against the anvil and 2) the distance between the end of the rotor and the impact point on the anvil. The product resulting from VSI Crushing is generally of a consistent cubical shape such as that required by modern SUPERPAVE highway asphalt applications. Using this method also allows materials with much higher abrasiveness to be crushed than is capable with an HSI and most other crushing methods.

VSI crushers generally utilize a high speed spinning rotor at the center of the crushing chamber and an outer impact surface of either abrasive resistant metal anvils or crushed rock. Utilizing cast metal surfaces ‘anvils’ is traditionally referred to as a “Shoe and Anvil VSI”. Utilizing crushed rock on the outer walls of the crusher for new rock to be crushed against is traditionally referred to as “rock on rock VSI”. VSI crushers can be used in static plant set-up or in mobile tracked equipment.

Top 5 Largest Cone Crusher Parts Manufacturer In China

The writer has focused on export crusher wear parts more than 10 years. Based on my experience, now I list the “Top 5 Largest Cone Crusher Parts Manufacturer In China”.

1.” Zhejiang Zhengang Industry“.

  • 20 years in casting cone crusher wear parts;
  • More than 30,000 tons of casting parts;
  • “Shanbao” OEM foundry;
  • Most of cone crusher wear parts are suit for China brand crushers. Such as SBM, SHANBAO, LIMING
  • No website
  • No export department

2. “Hunan Shuangfeng JianYe Industry

  • Since 1985 years
  • More than 10,000 tons wear parts per year
  • Focus on the local market, East South Asia, USA, European
  • Have an export office in Nanjing city

3.” HUBEI JYS ADVANCED WEAR RESISTANT MATERIAL TECHNOLOGY CO.,LTD

  • Since 2013 years
  • 8000 tons of wear parts per year
  • Focus on European market, North America market
  • Have an export office in Nanjing city
  • Fastest growing foundry in casting foundry

4.” Xinfeng Fufeng Metals Co., Ltd

  • Since 2004 years
  • 5000 tons of wear parts per year
  • No website, No export department

5.” Zhejiang Mayang Industries Co.,Ltd

  • Since 1985 years
  • 15,000 tons per year
  • One of reviser of GB/T 5680-2010 Standard of Manganese Steel Casting
  • Most of their parts are export to oversea

Nordberg GP100 Mainshaft Break Cause Analysis And Countermeasures

Our customer had purchased Nordberg GP100EF cone crusher 2 years ago. In the 2 years running time, the Nordberg GP100 Mainshaft breaks three times. Our customer asks us to help them solve this problem. The following picture is the break areas.

Nordberg GP100 Mainshaft break areas

Nordberg GP100 Mainshaft break areas

Due to frequently broken shafts, not only the normal production is affected, but also the daily maintenance and overhaul work is aggravated, resulting in high maintenance costs. In response to the fault, the cause of the broken shaft was found through analysis and improved, and good results were obtained. The following is a detailed analysis of the improvement.

Nordberg GP100 Mainshaft Structural Analysis

This Nordberg GP100 cone crusher structure like figure 2, the Nordberg GP100 Mainshaft (4)  install into the Mainframe(6); Eccentric bushing(5)  installs into Mainshaft (4); Crushing Cone (2) installs into Eccentric Bushing (5);At the same time, the lower spherical surface of the crushing cone is supported above the spherical bearing liner (3), and the upper end of the Mainshaft (4) is fixed by the Top Bearing (1). The safety device and the adjustment locking device of the crusher are hydraulic, and the lubrication system is basically the same as the ordinary cone crusher.

Nordberg GP100 Mainshaft Structural Analysis

Nordberg GP100 Mainshaft Structural Analysis

  1. Top Bearing
  2. Crushing Cone
  3. Bearing Liner
  4. Mainshaft
  5. Eccentric Bushing
  6. Mainframe

 

 

 

 

 

The crushing process is completed between the fixed cone and the eccentric rotating moving cone. The horizontal axis of the crusher is driven by the motor through the triangular belt. The horizontal shaft drives the eccentric bushing through the gear. When the eccentric bushing rotates, the spindle rotates. An eccentricity is generated to cause the crushing cone to rotate for the crushing motion. The feed enters the crusher through the feed port at the upper part of the crusher, and the crushed stone is discharged through the discharge port at the lower part of the crusher.

Nordberg GP100 Mainshaft Break Reasons Analysis

In just over 2 years of operation, the number of consecutive broken shafts was as many as 3 times. After the first two broken shafts were operated for more than one year, the second time after the replacement of the spindle and the body was only 3 months, it appeared again. Broken shaft failure, from which it can be judged, there must be its inherent reasons.
After careful analysis and research on the fracture of the main shaft, it is considered that the possibility of the main shaft breaking due to quality is almost non-existent. After eliminating the quality problem, the external influence factors, such as the feeding device, the feeding amount, the distribution of the material in the crushing chamber, etc., were searched and analyzed. Finally, the crux is finally found, that is, because the feedstock is biased to one side (Fig. 3), the material is unevenly distributed in the crushing chamber, resulting in uneven load at the bottom of the crushing chamber, thereby generating an impact load, and the spindle is in the process of eccentric rotation. Periodically subjected to the impact force P (Fig. 4), the spindle is repeatedly folded, and finally the spindle fatigue fracture.

Figure 3

    Figure 3
Figure 4

Figure 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

According to the requirements, the crusher must be equipped with a guiding device to ensure the same load at the bottom of the entire crushing chamber, so that the load can be even, the bearing is well lubricated, and the liner is evenly worn. This can be achieved by adjusting the conveyor, feed chute or baffle. When the crusher is installed, a baffle is arranged in the feeding funnel to ensure the uniform distribution of the material in the crushing chamber. However, during the operation after the production, due to insufficient feeding height and wet materials, the material is Blockage in the feed funnel resulted in poor feed. Since the crushing section of the workshop did not inform the relevant departments to take corresponding measures, the baffle was cut off by itself, causing the feedstock to be biased and uneven load, resulting in frequently broken shafts.

Improvement Measures

Based on the above reasons, we have taken the following measures: Re-recover the baffle in the feed funnel, adjust the height of the free fall of the material to 1.3 m, and adjust the upper frame beam parallel to the feeding direction, while keeping the crusher as much as possible. Packing the feed (filling the feed allows the crusher to maximize its productivity). Through the improvement of these measures, the materials are evenly distributed around the crushing chamber, which greatly improves the stress state of the main shaft, and the working environment and equipment operating conditions are significantly improved.

 

Symons 7ft Cone Crusher Dustproof Problem

Symons 7ft cone crusher is Nordberg spring cone crusher. It is an improved version of the YP2200 cone crusher with an installed capacity of 400 kW (YP2200 installed capacity 280kW). The spring crusher has been manufactured for over 100 years, and the model specifications are also available. There are also many series spring cone crusher. Their dust-tight seals are water-sealed. The mines, stone factories, and hydropower industries all over the world are still widely used. However, this crusher has many serious shortcomings. Although the manufacturer knows the defects of the crusher, it is impossible for the commercial advantage to make corresponding improvements on the crusher, but to develop another model, to lobby users to update older models of equipment to gain greater profits. For example, the HP and GP series crushers produced by Nordberg no longer use the water seal to prevent dust but use positive pressure wind to prevent dust and use them as a selling point to promote them. In fact, reasonable design improvements to the 7-foot cone crusher can also achieve the desired results.

Cone Crusher Crushing Principle

The crusher is driven by the motor to rotate the horizontal shaft, and the eccentric bushing is driven to make the moving cone rotate around a hanging point for conical swivel motion, and the moving cone is close to or away from the fixed cone to achieve the purpose of crushing the stone. The stone enters the crushing chamber from the upper part and is discharged from the lower part by gravity. In the process of crushing, the whole crusher is filled with dust. Due to the swinging motion of the crusher, a negative pressure is formed inside the crusher, so “breathing” occurs inside and outside. As a result, external dust enters the interior of the crusher, contaminating the lubrication system and causing damage to moving parts.

Water Seal Principle

The sealing system of the crusher consists of a water tank, a retaining ring, an inlet and outlet pipe, a vent pipe and a bowl-shaped tile seat (Fig. 1). The retaining ring is welded to the moving cone and swings with the moving cone. The sink is mounted on the bowl-shaped tile seat and is fixed. The dust-proof water enters the inner ring of the water tank from the water inlet pipe, overflows the barrier and enters the outer ring, and then is discharged by the return pipe. During operation, the circumference of the retaining ring is always immersed in water. If there is a certain point away from the water surface, the crusher will enter the dust.

Sealing System Structure

  1. Retaining ring
  2. Moving Jaws
  3. Socklet liner
  4. 4.5mm Rubber gasket
  5. Frame
  6. Sink mounting bolt
  7. Sink
  8. Bowl gasket

 

The seal unwork reasons

There are two reasons that cause the seal cannot work.

  1. Some dust went into the cone crusher body. The depth of the retaining ring immersed in water is unreasonable. The retaining ring leaves the water at some point and the crusher will enter the dust.
  2. Some water went into cone crusher body. The water in and out is out of balance. First, the water level in the inner ring rises, causing dust water to be poured into the crusher; then leakage, and other unexpected factors. i) Difficult to control the amount of water. Influent and effluent must reach an absolute balance, the amount of water is small, and it is easy to cause dust deposition; if the amount of water is large, it is easy to raise the water level. In both cases, the water level in the tank is raised and the inside of the crusher is flooded; ii)Installation accuracy is difficult to control. In fact, the sink is only a half annular groove, which together with the bowl-shaped tile seat constitutes a complete annular water tank. Its seal is a washer on the lower part (see Figure 1). If a large tank ring body is fastened by only six M18 bolts at the edges, the reliability of the seal is greatly reduced and the water in the tank will inevitably penetrate from the lower part; iii)  Bowl gasket and frame installation.  The bowl-shaped tile seat is mounted on the frame. When installing, the acetylene-oxygen flame is used to heat the mouth of the frame with a diameter of 1537 mm. When the heat expands to the required size, the bowl-shaped tile seat is placed. Since the fall in place. Although it is hot-fit and interference fit, the contact surface is unlikely to reach 100%. The joint area of the general assembly surface is only 30% to 40%, and factors such as deformation and ellipse are not considered. When the water tank seeps, the mating surface of the bowl-shaped tile seat seeps. iV) Moving parts wear out. The moving cone of the crusher is located on the spherical bowl tile, so the entire crushing force is supported by the bowl-shaped spherical tile. During the operation, the spherical copper tile and the moving cone sphere are worn out, and the spherical copper tile wear is more obvious, especially when the lubrication is poor. When the spherical tile wears, the gap between the retaining ring and the water tank becomes smaller, the balance of the water flow in the water tank is broken, and the water level of the inner ring will rise, causing the dust water to flood or splash into the crusher.

Improvement Methods

There are not many problems with water seal dust prevention, and China is a big country with water resources, and we must cherish water. Wind (air) is inexhaustible, so wind and dust are both convenient and reliable. We use the following measures to achieve positive pressure dust:

  1. Remove the retaining ring and the sink, and install the active sealing ring on the moving cone, as shown in Figure 2.
    Symons 7ft Cone Crusher Dustproof Problem

    Figure 2

     

  2. Install one cylinder on the bowl seat.
  3. The air inlet hole is machined on the bowl-shaped tile seat to allow the wind to enter the cylinder, so that a positive pressure difference is generated inside and outside the dustproof ring to prevent dust from entering.
  4. Install a “U” shaped tube on the return line to prevent pressure wind from leaking out and reduce the positive pressure at the ring;
  5. Install one blower, install one pressure gauge at the outlet of the blower, and install one exhaust valve to adjust the wind pressure. Sending pressurized air to the breathing port on the bowl tile and the horizontal axle box;
  6. The blower is interlocked with the main motor of the crusher to ensure that the fan operates when the crusher is turned on.

The principle of dust prevention is that the pressure wind enters the crusher through the air holes on the bowl-shaped tile seat, so that a positive pressure is formed in the crusher, and the dust is prevented from diffusing into the interior of the crusher to achieve the purpose of dust prevention. Since the water is not used, the crusher will not enter the water.